[Much credit to these rules goes to Christopher K. Farrell who came up
with the original idea for many of them. I have made many small and
large changes here and there and added a few of my own.]

I. Calpurnian Law Fines:
Fines collected from the Calpurnian Law go directly to the State Treasury.

II.  Random Events:
In the Middle and Late Republic, the HRAO should roll once on the Random
Events chart before taking his first initiative.

III. Legion Popularity Loss:
A commander loses popularity equal to half the number of legions lost
(fractions rounded down) in a Disaster, Standoff, or Stalemate, and
equal to a third of the legions lost (frd) in a Victory. There is no
popularity loss for losing fleets.

IV. Spoils of War:
In the Late Republic, during the Revolution Phase a victorious commander
must make one dr for every 10T (or fraction thereof) of the War's Spoils.
He may then retain that many talents in his personal treasury, with the
remainder going to the State. If he keeps the spoils, then for each dr
rolled, the senator must lose 1 popularity and 1 influence. If the
commander rebels he can keep all of the spoils. The dice are rolled
before the commander decides to rebel or not; if he rebels then he can
keep the remainder.

V. Popularity Cap (X)
Any Senator who ends the Population Phase with more than X popularity
must lose 1 point of popularity. A Statesman cannot be reduced to less
than his printed popularity by this decrease.

VI. Gabinian Law
Allow this Law to be played after the Late Period Pirate War appears.

VII. Tribal Assembly
Change T. Sempronius Gracchus' special advantage from "May propose one
land bill per turn" to "Influence loss for introducing a measure to the
Tribal Assembly is 1." No Senator may introduce a measure to the Tribal
Assembly until after T. Gracchus has in the Middle Republic; he is
assumed to have already done so in the Late Republic.

In order to introduce a measure to the Tribal Assembly, a senator must
play a Tribune (a statesman's free tribune cannot be used) and
immediately lose 3 Influence. Any proposal may be introduced to the
Tribal Assembly that could normally be voted on in the Senate,
*including* elections for all offices *except* for Censor. Prosecutions
also cannot be proposed. The voting procedure is the same, except that
each faction receives votes for the sum of its (in-Rome) Senator's
*popularity*, plus the oratory of any *one* senator in his faction (must
be the senator who introduced the measure for the playing faction), and
that player who played the Tribune is the Presiding Magistrate. Money
can still be spent to buy votes normally, but each vote costs *2*
talents instead of the normal 1. Negative popularity does subtract from
a faction's votes; if a faction has 0 or fewer votes, they may not vote
except to play a tribune. A Tribune (including a statesman's free
tribune) may be used to veto a measure in the Tribal Assembly; no other
form of veto (PM, Statesman's free *veto*, etc...) may be used (although
GRAFT and MURDER OF A TRIBUNE may be used to cancel the tribune's
motion, in which case the influence loss for the initiating senator is
voided). One MOB VIOLENCE card should be added to the Middle Republic
deck (use a convenient card from the Late Republic); These may now
additionally be played against any faction trying to introduce a measure
to the Tribal Assembly; they must be played before the voting commences,
and if the initiating senator is killed the measure is considered
cancelled. Only one MOB VIOLENCE card may be played per measure.
Whenever a measure is introduced to the Tribal Assembly and not
cancelled before voting commences, increase the Unrest Level by 1.

VIII.  Optional Provinces:
Whenever a Commander is victorious in either the Invasion of Britain
or Invasion of Germany, *and* loses at  most 2 legions, he (the
commander) may opt to create the provinces of Britannia, or Upper
Germany, respectively. If a commander defeats the Invasion of Germany
with no losses, he may opt to create Upper and Lower Germany. In the
senate phase after the defeat of the Alexandrine War, the Senate may
pass a motion to create the province of Egypt. If this motion is not
passed immediately, the Egypt province may not be created; this
proposal, if made, may not be vetoed. Egypt starts and remains
developed; it never becomes undeveloped. All four provinces are border
provinces. The Governor of Egypt must be a prior consul; if no prior
consul is available, elect any senator for a one-year term (returning in
the following revenue phase). A one-year governor is subject to the full
fining/prosecution if he takes personal income. Egypt must be allocated
before a prior consul is sent to any other provinces; the last available
candidate rule is in effect.

Numbers are undeveloped - developed

                 Britain       Upper Germany   Lower Germany
Base Strength    2/1 - 3/2     2/0 - 4/0       1/0 - 3/0
Personal Income  dr-3 - dr+1   dr-2 - dr+2     dr-3 - dr-1
State Income     dr-5 - dr-1   dr-3 - dr-1     dr-5 - dr-2
Local Taxes      10 - 25       20 - 30         10 - 15
Maximum Forces   5/5 - 7/7     6/0 - 10/0      5/0 - 10/0
Defends Against  none          none            none

Base Strength:   3/8
Personal Income: TDR [or dr+7]
State Income:    TDR [or DR+4]
Local Taxes:     60
Maximum Forces:  8/15
Defends Against: none

[Editorís Note: The author had confused the term Lower Germany with
Southern Germany. Lower Germany refers to the Lower banks of the Rhine
and therefore Northern Germany; I have made the appropriate changes
above. I don't like the fact that there are two Germanic provinces and
would have preferred there to be only one.]

/* */

IX. New Law Cards

a) (Early Republic) - Increased Reliance on Italian Auxiliaries. The
player who plays this law loses dr/2 (FRD) Popularity from each of his
senators (roll once for each senator) and the unrest level is increased
by 2. Each legion may now have an "auxiliary" attached for 4 talents.
Auxiliaries increase the strength of the legion by 50%, with fractions
rounded down in the final total; Auxiliaries may not be attached to an
already veteran legion. Denote strengthened legions in any convenient
way. Such legions require a 2T bribe to increase the likelihood of
loyalty. This law can only be played during the 2nd Punic, 1st Gallic,
or either Macedonian War. All Auxiliaries go home and this law is
repealed when both the 2nd Punic and 2nd Macedonian War are defeated;
increase the unrest by an additional 2 when the law is repealed. If this
law is played, increase the Social War to 15. While this law is in play,
the effects of any "Allied Enthusiasm" events that come up are halved

b) (Early Republic) - The Senate declares a National Emergency. The
sponsoring player loses 4 popularity off his highest popularity senator,
and all other senators in the playing faction lose 2 popularity; all
other faction leaders 2 popularity and all other senators lose 1
popularity. The Unrest Level is increased by 3. All Landbills are
immediately repealed and no more may be passed this turn, and any
Manpower Shortage/No Recruitment is eliminated. Additionally, the first
5 units raised in the Senate Phase may be raised for half price, and the
owners of the Arms/Fleet Building concessions receive no income from any
forces built this turn, and the largest numbered Standoff and Disaster
numbers on all wars/leaders are ignored for this turn only. May only be
played if there are matching Macedonian or Punic Wars in play, or wars
with a total strength of 20 or more.

c) (Early Republic) - Rhodian Alliance. Treat as if the Rhodian Alliance
event had come up.

d) (Late Republic) - Provincial Command: allows more flexibility in the
use of provincial forces; any commander who is also a governor (by the
Vatinian Law) may add any provincial forces from a province he is
governing to his command at any time before the combat TDR if the
province is listed on the war he is attacking (not necessarily the first
province). As long as he remains a commander, the provincial forces may
remain part of his forces (even if he attacks a different war that no
longer lists the original province). When he is no longer a commander,
the provincial forces are returned to the province. Provincial forces are
always loyal to their commander, and may not be recalled or disbanded by
the Senate.

e) (Late Republic) - Provincial Reorganization: Combine each of Nearer &
Further Spain, Transalpine & Narbonese Gaul, Cisalpine Gaul & Sardinia-
Corsica, and Syria & Cilicia-Cyprus into one province each (for a total
of 4 larger provinces). Each one of these provinces must be governed by
a prior consul if one is available, otherwise elect anyone to a one-year
term. Each of the provinces has the combined value of each of it's
smaller provinces, and the combined province should be notated by
stacking the smaller provinces. Anything that would effect one of the
provinces (Pretender, Barbarians, etc.) effects the one new province
similarly. If either province is unimproved, the new province is treated
as unimproved (although are improved/sacked together afterwards). All
governors in affected provinces are immediately recalled when this law
is played. Once this law is played, the Vatinian Law may not be played;
Likewise, if the Vatinian Law is in play, this law may not be played.

f) (Late Republic) - Tradition Erodes II - All provinces that require a
prior consul, except Egypt, may now be assigned to anyone.

g) (Early Repbulic) - Peace Treaty - Can only be played after
Prosecutions and before Governorships and only if the State has enough
funds to pay the Initial Tribute. At the time the card is played, the
player that plays it must select a War Series that this Law would affect
if passed. Senate must immediately vote on whether to pass this Law;
this vote cannot be vetoed. If passed the following occurs:
1. Both Consuls and Dictator (and Presiding Magistrate if other) must
   each lose 3 Popularity.
2. Unrest is increased by 3.
3. Each discarded War in the Series is returned back to play. The
   lowest-numbered War of the series in play then becomes Inactive; all
   other Wars and Leaders in the series are reshuffled into the deck. If
   the current deck has less than six cards, shuffle them into the next
   deck. Discarded leaders remain in the discard pile.
4. For each War in the Series, returned from discard or returned to
   deck, the State must immediately pay 20 talents in Initial Tribute.
   Also, for each War returned from the discard pile, the State must pay
   back the Spoils gained from that War as part of the Initial Tribute
   and Rome loses all provinces gained from that War (Governors return
   to Rome).
5. During each Revenue Phase that the Peace Treaty is in effect, the
   State must pay 20 talents in Yearly Tribute for each War that was
   returned from discard or returned to deck.
6. Every War in the series gains a permanent +1 to Land and Naval
   Strength (not Fleet Support Strength) when the Initial Tribute is
   played and also during each Revenue Phase the Peace Treaty is in
   effect. Rome cannot attack the new Inactive War on the turn the Law
   is passed, though she can next turn. (Every War will in effect gain a
   _minimum_ of +2 Strength before it can be attacked).
7. The Peace Treaty remains in effect until Rome attacks the new
   Inactive War or a Matching War/Leader is drawn. New Alliance events
   do not affect the new Inactive War while the Peace Treaty is in

XI. Delayed Matching Wars (from AH)

7.3321 TIME DELAY:  Whenever a War of Revolt card is drawn from the deck
that would match a face-up War or Revolt card already located in the
Forum, the drawn card is placed face-down in an Inactive War slot for
the remainder of the current turn.  If the face-up card is currently
located in an Inactive War slot, it is immediately moved to an Active
War slot; otherwise, face-up cards are not affected in any way.  At the
beginning of each turn, before any other action is taken, all cards in
Inactive War slots are turned face-up, and one card for each War or
Revolt is moved to an Active War slot on the Forum.  Wars should be
selected for activation  in chronological order (e.g. 1st Macedonian
before 2nd Macedonian) whenever possible.  An Inactive War and its
leader are instantly matched and activated; there is no delay.  If a
Leader is drawn that matches an Active War, the Leader is immediately
placed on the Active War card--but no additional War cards are

XII. Revised Statesman
All Statesman that void _any_ war's D/S numbers now void _all_ standoff
numbers on _all_ wars, but do not void _any_ disaster numbers. Also, add
this ability to both Caesar and Pompey. So the effected Statesman are:

#1A, #18A, #19A, #1B, #1C, #27A, #4A, #30A

XIII. Defeats 
Defeats take precedence over Disasters and Standoff.

XIV. Others
a. Players can play any red cards that are traded during the Initial
   Intrigue phase, instead of having to wait for the first Revolution
b. No Temporary Rome Consul.
c. Randomly select a Temporary Rome Consul.
d. 1st Punic War fleet strength is never doubled (or tripled,...).
e. Leaders do not add to 1st Punic War fleet strength or D/S numbers.
f. Shuffle 1st Punic War into deck
g. Statesman nullify Leader D/S numbers as well
h. Sertorian, Spanish, Numantine Wars, and Sertorius all match

XV. Starting Provincial Forces
Allow provinces that start the game in play to begin with some
provincial forces already built:

                     Middle Republic        Late Republic
Sicily               4 Armies & 2 Fleets    10 Armies & 5 Fleets
Sardinia-Corsica     1 Fleet                1 Army & 4 Fleets
Cisalpine Gaul       1 Army                 8 Armies
Illyricum                                   6 Armies
Further Spain                               6 Armies
Nearer Spain                                5 Armies
Greece                                      3 Armies & 3 Fleets
Africa                                      2 Armies & 2 Fleets
Asia                                        2 Armies & 2 Fleets
Narbonese Gaul

XVI. Middle Republic Variable Ending Rule
The following rule can be used to help prevent the "end of the world"
syndrome which occurs when artifical time limits dictate the end of the
scenario and send all players off on a desperate grab for influence or
assassination attempts. [Rule was originally mentioned by AH in a
slightly different form than that presented here.]

At the end of every turn, starting with the turn the second deck
expires, a die is rolled to see if the game ends. The game ends on a die
roll of 6 or more. There is a +2 modifier for every turn that the die is
rolled without resulting in the end of the game (a maximum of 3 new
turns may be added in this fashion).

When a player is required to draw a new card from the deck but there are
none, he instead draws from a new deck of 24 cards consisting of the

2 Senators : #26  Octavius, #27  Marius
3 Statesman: #28A Cicero, #29B Lucullus, #30A Pompeius
2 Laws     : Julian Law, Plautian-Papirian Law
7 Intrigue : Proscription, Murder of a Tribune, Influence Peddling
             Assassin, Secret Bodyguard, Tribune, Tribune
6 Wars     : Social War, 1st Mithridatic War, 2nd Mithridatic War
             3rd Mithridatic War, Sertorian Revolt, Gladiator Slave Revolt
2 Leaders  : Mithridates VI, Spartacus
2 Events   : Ptolemy Apion Bequest, Bithynian Bequest

As soon as this draw is made, the game is considered to be in the Late
Republic for purposes of Legion Allegiance and Random Events rolls.

[I wanted the maximum number of new turns to be three so I decided to
include only 24 cards in this new deck. I looked at all the ratios of
card types to deck size and also the historical chronology to determine
which cards to include. These cards go right up to the time that Julius
Caesar would have made an impact and historically makes for a nice clean
cutting off period. The biggest choices to make were the Senators and
Statesman since these would most likely have the biggest effect on the
deck. Pompeius was added not only for historical accuracy, since he
prosecuted the 3rd Mithridatic and Slave Revolt, but also because his
miltary rating (on average) is good. Lucullus (and Marius to a degree)
were added to counter the potentially dangerous matching Mithridatic
wars. Cicero was a tough choice but I wanted 5 Senators/Statesman and he
historically appeared slightly before the others I think. Octavius was
added to fill out. Something similar should be done for the Late
Republic, however there are no cards to fill out this period at the

XVIII. Voluntary Retirement
During the Early and Middle republic (of an extended game only) a player
can voluntarily retire any Senator with influence greater than 20 that
he has in play in Rome during any Population Phase (after the Population
Roll) or Revolution Phase. The Senator must lose all counters, except
for Faction Leader and Talents, and he must return all attached cards to
the Forum. The player keeps any family card. The current influence of
the Senator is recorded and is added to that player's final influence
tally for determining victory conditions. A retired Statesman is
discarded from play. If the player does not control the family card then
all counters (including faction leader) and cards are removed or moved
to the Forum.

XIX. Marcus Atilius Regulus
Rename Senator #12 Acilius to Atilius and add a Statesman to the Early
Republic deck:
#12A M. Atilius Regulus (Mil:4,Ora:3,Loy:8,Inf:5)
   Nullifies 1st & 2nd Punic War Disaster/Standoff
[Historically, it was Regulus who defeated the Carthaginian fleet off
Ecnomus, though he was captured when he later landed in Africa.]

XX. Elder Statesman
During the mortality phase, a Statesman without an Age marker receives
one numbered "1". A Statesman with an Age marker has its number
increased by 1. If the number on the marker is greater than or equal to
7 that Statesman is considered to be an Elder Statesman. A roll must be
made for each Elder Statesman during the Mortality Phase to see if that
Statesman dies. A dr of 6 results in the death of that Statesman. For
each number greater than 7 on the marker, 1 is added to the dr roll. An
Elder Statesman cannot leave Rome (for example, to fight a War or Govern
a province) or attempt an assassination. This does not prevent him from
becoming a Dictator or Field Consul, it merely prevents him from being
sent to fight a War (or anything else that could make him leave Rome).
He is not forced to return to Rome if he is already away. An Elder
Statesman can go into Exile normally.

XXI. The Ligurian Wars
1st/2nd/3rd Ligurian Wars 197-154 BC
  6/0; Inactive until attacked; -20 per Turn if Active; D4/S17;
  10t Spoils; [Attacks: Cisalpine Gaul]
  The 1st Ligurian War enters play when the 1st Gallic War is defeated.
  When the 1st war is defeated, the war is discarded and the 2nd war is
  brought into play. Likewise, when the 2nd war is defeated the 3rd war
  is brought into play. All three wars are discarded (with no spoils) if
  they have not been already when the game enters the Late Republic.
  These wars never go into the deck for any reason, they are discarded
[Historically when things were quiet on the war front, consuls would go
off "triumph-hunting" by bullying up on the Ligurians. Some twelve
triumphs were awarded in these quests for booty. The Ligurians lived
roughly between Cisalpine Gaul and the Tyrrhenian Sea. This rule is
mainly to liven up the Middle Republic if it needs livening up.]

XXII. 4-Player Game (Early Republic or Extended)
Each player is dealt 4 senators, 2 senators begin in the Forum, and 2
senators begin in the Curia. Each player is dealt 4 red cards. The
remaining red cards are shuffled into the deck. Each player can hold a
maximum of 7 red cards during the revolution phase. Initiatives 5 and 6
are dealt with in either of these manners:
1. The 5th initiative is bid on normally, but bidding for the 6th
initiative begins with the player who won the 5th initiative.
2. Initiative rolls are made for both initiatives and cards drawn if
necessary but players do not participate in these two initiatives (no
persuasion attempts, knights, faction leaders, games). Any red cards
drawn are randomly distributed to players except that a player cannot
receive a card if another player has received fewer cards in this
fashion throughout the entire game. Example: On turn 1, two red cards
are drawn during the 5th and 6th initiatives. If player 2 is assigned
the first card then only players 1, 3, and 4 are eligible to receive
the second card. If player 3 receives the second card then only players
1 and 4 are eligible for the next red card drawn during the 5th and 6th
initiatives. Only after players 1 and 4 have received cards during the
last two initiatives of any turn, can players 1 and 2 receive cards in
this fashion again.

XXIII. Non-Privileged Assassinations
The following assassination attempts are considered "privileged":
  1. attempt vs a CFL nominee.
  2. attempt in which at least 1 Assassin card is played.
  3. attempt vs a Sponsor/Cosponsor of a Land Bill where both are from
     the same faction.
This rule makes no changes to "privileged" attempts.
All other attempts are considered "non-privileged" (NP). When a NP
attempt is made roll another dr (unmodified by any cards); if the roll
is odd, 1 is subtracted from the assassination roll; if the roll is
even there is no effect.

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