*** Birth of the Republic 509-264 BC *** Changes

Covering the period from the expulsion of the last Roman King (Tarquin
Superbius) and the establishment of the Republic up until the 1st Punic

[Note: These rules are written with a 6-player game in mind only.]

--- Latin Period 509-390 BC

--- Setup
Rome begins with 30t and 2 Legions; 1 Active War, and 1 Leader begin in

1st Latin War 499-493
  2/0; Active; -10 per Turn if Active; D3/S18; 10t Spoils
  Victory allows Tax Farmers 1 & 2 to be played.
  Strength x 2: 2 related Wars

Tarquinius Superbus ?-495
  +1 to 1st Latin War; D7/S14; Treat as Drought while in play
  Eliminated when 1st Latin War is defeated

--- Annual Revenue
Annual Revenue at start is 30t. (-10t on turn 1 due to active War). The
State should therefore have a total of 46 talents after collecting annual
revenue and paying maintenance for 2 legions on turn 1.

The State's Annual Revenue is increased by victory over certain wars as
noted on the war card's description and listed here:
  Veientine War   - +10t
  2nd Latin War   - +10t
  1st Samnite War - +10t
  2nd Samnite War - +20t
  3rd Samnite War - +20t
Defeat of all five of these wars would therefore make the annual revenue
equal to 100t, as in the normal game.

--- Senators
There is no Consul at the start. The HRAO is determined via normal rules
using the senator with highest influence (oratory in case of ties).

--- Senators
1. Shuffle senators #1 through #18 and deal 3 to each player.
2. Senators #19 & #20 are shuffled into the Early Republic Deck.
3. Reletter Statesman #18A Flamininus to #18B.

--- Brutus
The player who receives #10 Junius is given this Statesman which he must
play during Initial Intrigue:

#10A  L. Junius Brutus ?-509 (Mil:4,Ora:3,Loy:9,Inf:7,Pop:1)
  Voids 1st Latin War D/S.

--- Red Cards
Take 12 Cards from the Early Republic:
Harbor Fees
Tax Farmers 1-6 (not playable at start)
2 Tribunes

plus 6 New Red Cards:
#5A  Appius Claudius 340-273 (Mil:1,Ora:5,Loy:9,Inf:5)
  +1 to Population Rolls.
#8A  M. Furius Camillus 445-365 (Mil:5,Ora:3,Loy:8,Inf:5)
  Voids Veientine War D/S.
#18A L. Quinctius Cincinnatus ?-435 (Mil:5,Ora:2,Loy:9,Inf:1)
  Voids Aequian and Volscian War D/S.
  Player can make one Unopposed Persuasion Attempt against any senator
  in the Forum during his initiative. This counts as the faction's
  persuasion attempt. This card can be played during any period.
2 Tribunes (these are 2 brand new Tribune cards)

Shuffle all 18 cards; deal 2 Red cards to each player, the remaining 6
are shuffled into the Latin Deck.

--- Latin Deck (15 Cards)
Volscian War ca. 494-455
  2/0; Active; -10 per Turn if Active; D6/S15; 5t Spoils
  Victory allows Tax Farmers 3 & 4 to be played.
Aequian War ca. 494-455
  2/0; Active; -10 per Turn if Active; D6/S15; 5t Spoils
  Victory allows Tax Farmers 5 & 6 to be played.
Veientine War 483-396
  4/0; Active; -10 per Turn if Active; D9/S12
  Victory increases Annual State Revenue by 10 talents (+3 legions)
Coriolanus ?-? (Leader)
  +2 to Volscian War; D3/S16
  Eliminated when Volscian War is defeated
Sack of Rome 390 (Event)
  Rome is sacked! Unrest is increased by 3, and 3 Mortality chits are
  drawn which can effect any senator in play; however, senators whose
  chits are drawn are considered captured and are killed if not ransomed
  before the next Forum phase. The State must immediately pay 30t.
  Discard at start of next Forum Phase.
2 Plebian Secession 494/449 (Event)
  Treat just like a Drought Event. Discard at start of next Forum Phase.
Agrarian Unrest 485 (Event)
  Treat just like a Drought Event. During the upcoming Senate Phase the
  Presiding Magistrate must propose a Type I Land Bill after any
  Prosecutions. This proposal cannot be vetoed. Whatever the result of
  the vote, Land Bills can now be proposed normally. Discard at start of
  next Forum Phase.
The Twelve Tables 450 (Event)
  All senators who have an office (except for the Pontifex Maximus if
  there is one) lose their office along with 1 influence. Instead of
  electing 2 Consuls this turn, elect 3 Consular Tribunes (see Special
  Rules for Consular Tribunes). All senators are eligible to become CT
  except for the Pontifex Maximus. Censors can be elected beginning next
  turn. Add one to this turn's Population Phase roll. Discard at start of
  next Forum Phase.
6 Other Red Cards (see above)

--- Italian Period 390-264 BC

--- Statesman
Sort out the 5 Early Republic statesman. Shuffle 3 of these statesman
into the Italian Deck; the remaining 2 statesman are shuffled into the
Early Republic Deck. None of these statesman can be played prior to turn
6's Revolution Phase.

--- Italian Deck (16 Cards)
2nd Latin War 340-338
  4/0; Active; -10 per Turn if Active; D4/S18
  Victory increases Annual State Revenue by 10 talents (+3 legions)
  Strength x 2: 2 related Wars
1st Samnite War 343-341
  2/0; Active; -10 per Turn if Active; D3/S18
  Victory increases Annual State Revenue by 10 talents (+2 legions)
  Strength x 2: 2 related Wars; Strength x 3: 3 related Wars
2nd Samnite War 327-304
  5/0; Inactive; -10 per Turn if Active; D10/S17
  Inactive until attacked or matched
  Victory increases Annual State Revenue by 20 talents (+5 legions)
  Strength x 2: 2 related Wars; Strength x 3: 3 related Wars
3rd Samnite War 298-290
  8/0; Active; -10 per Turn if Active; D5/S17
  Victory increases Annual State Revenue by 20 talents (+5 legions)
  Strength x 2: 2 related Wars; Strength x 3: 3 related Wars
Pyrrhic War 280-272
  7/0; Active; -10 per Turn if Active; D7/S16; 10t Spoils;
  [Attacks: Sicily]
  Strength of War is reduced by 4 whenever combat result is other than a
  Victory or Defeat. War is discarded with no spoils when strength is
  reduced below 1.
Pyrrhus ?-? (Leader)
  +3 Pyrrhic War; D9/S15
  Eliminated when Pyrrhic War is defeated or discarded
Plebian Revolt 287 (Event)
  Treat as Severe Drought (+2 Unrest each Population Phase) until the
  Hortensian Law is passed (see special rules), when it is discarded.
Appian Works 312-308 (Intrigue)
  Playable during the Senate Phase after Censor Election by a faction
  that controls the Censor. Censor gains 2 Popularity and Unrest is
  lowered by 2. The State must immediately pay 10t from the Treasury.
  Cannot be played if there is less than 10t in the Treasury. Discard
  after use.
Scandal (Intrigue) - Playable during the player's initiative in the Forum
  Phase. Target senator loses DR Popularity. Counts as that player's
  Persuasion Attempt. Discard after use. The player playing this card
  must have a senator in Rome when this card is played.
3 Tribunes (from Early Republic)
1 Influence Peddling (from Early Republic)
3 Early-Republic Statesman (see above)

*** Special Rules

--- Senate Phase
1. A Censor cannot be elected (nor Prosecutions made) until the turn
   after The Twelve Tables Event (Latin Deck) is drawn. Note that prior
   consul markers are still awarded for office per normal rules.
2. Land Bills cannot be proposed until the Agrarian Unrest Event (Latin
   Deck) is drawn.
3. Tribunes (cards or statesman) cannot be played until the Hortensian
   Law is proposed and passed. This Law is not represented by a card.
   -- Hortensian Law Special Proposal:
   If, and only if, the Plebian Revolt is in play, the Presiding
   Magistrate may make this special proposal after any Prosecutions are
   made. The proposal is voted on normally. If passed, the Presiding
   Magistrate gains 2 Popularity but loses 2 Influence and the Plebian
   Revolt Event is discarded. Once this proposal is passed, Tribunes
   become playable. This proposal cannot be vetoed by the Pontifex
4. Rome can build a maximum of 7 legions at the start; defeat of certain
   wars adds more legions to the Pool. Rome cannot build fleets until the
   Early  Republic and the maximum numbers are the same as for legions.
    Veientine War   - +3 legions
    2nd Latin War   - +3 legions
    1st Samnite War - +2 legions
    2nd Samnite War - +5 legions
    3rd Samnite War - +5 legions
5. Consular Tribunes (CT): A senator elected as CT gains 2 Influence,
   regardless of the Period, and a Prior Consul marker. Any and all CT's
   can be sent to war in any order. The Presiding Magistrate is the CT
   with the most influence (oratory breaks ties). A Dictator can still be
   appointed via normal rules but all three must agree. A CT cannot be
   elected Consul next turn. Otherwise, treat a CT just like a Consul.

--- Combat Phase
1. Commanders do not become Proconsul until the Early Republic. They
   always return to Rome during the Revolution Phase (even if not
   victorious) and cannot rebel.
2. Veterans are not created until the Early Republic.

--- Other
1. "New Alliance" Events are treated as "Another New Alliance" for all
   wars from the Pre-Early Republic Period (i.e. War is discarded with
   all spoils).
2. The Tax Farmer concessions cannot be played until certain wars are
   Tax Farmers 1 & 2 - 1st Latin War (Latin Period)
   Tax Farmers 3 & 4 - Volscian War (Latin Period)
   Tax Farmers 5 & 6 - Aequian War (Latin Period)
3. A Latin Period Statesman is discarded if he is in play at the start of
   the Revolution Phase of the Early Republic; _all_ his possessions
   except for his office are transferred to the family card. He cannot
   be prosecuted next turn for the office and he is eligible for Consul
   regardless what office he had held.
   When a Latin Period Statesman is played, the family card is placed
   underneath the statesman even if it is in the Curia.
4. Note that a Period is entered when a card from that deck is drawn.

--- Influence Gains/Losses Summary Changes
Cause           Latin  Italian  Early
Pontifex Maximus  +5      +5      +5
Dictator          +3      +5      +7
Consul            +3      +4      +5
Censor            +3      +4      +5
Master of Horse   +1      +2      +3
Minor Conviction  -3      -4      -5   (changes apply to popularity too)

--- Random Events Table (Latin & Italian Period)
3   Mob Violence
4   Natural Disaster (-25t)
5   Drought
6   Evil Omens (-10t)
7   Epidemic
8   Refuge
9   Ally Deserts
10  Evil Omens (-10t)
11  Ally Deserts
12  Manpower Shortage
13  Allied Enthusiasm (+25t)
14  Enemy Ally Deserts
15  Allied Enthusiasm (+25t)
16  Enemy Ally Deserts
17  Enemy Leader Dies
18  New Alliance
Evil Omens, Natural Disaster, and Allied Enthusiasm monetary effects are
halved during the Pre-Early Republic Period. The Pontifex Maximus' fine
from Evil Omens is only 5t (this, if he can't pay the 10t for the Omens).

--- Next Deck (Early Republic - 27 cards)
8 Wars (including 1st Punic War shuffled into deck)
4 Leaders
2 Senators (#19 and #20)
5 Concessions (2 Grain; Land Commissioner, Armaments, Ship Building)
4 Tribunes
1 Assassin
1 Secret Bodyguard
2 Early Republic Statesman (see above)

--- D/S Percentages
Pyrrhic War w/leader   25.9
Veientine War          23.2 - Camillus voids D/S
1st Latin War w/leader 14.8 - Brutus voids D/S
2nd Samnite War        13.9
Volscian War w/leader  12.5 - Cincinnatus voids D/S
Pyrrhic War             9.7
Volscian War            9.2 - Cincinnatus voids D/S
Aequian War             9.2 - Cincinnatus voids D/S
3rd Samnite War         4.2
2nd Latin War           1.9
1st Samnite War         1.0

+++ Strategy Tips

--- Latin Period

Wars - There are only four wars including one active at the start. They
should be relatively easy to defeat unless combat rolls are low or the
Statesman that void their D/S numbers aren't available. However, with
only 7 legions at the start their prosecution could be difficult. It is
important to remember that the military rating of a commander added to
the legion strength cannot exceed it, so with only 2 legions the maximum
force you can get is 4 regardless of the commander's rating. Going after
the Veientine War as early as possible is a good idea because it adds 3
more legions to the Pool. The biggest decision with regards to Wars is
whether to attack two of them simultaneously or concentrate on one of 
them, when there are more than one. Dictator prerequisites are the same
and since none of these wars can have a strength >= 20, three active wars
are required; a Dictator should be rare.

Funds - This is a major challenge. The Sack of Rome costs the State
30t, and combined with an Evil Omens or Natural Disaster, the loss could
be 40t or 55t. Since Rome needs to build as many legions as possible
early on, the State needs all the funds it can muster. Until the Gallic
Invasion is drawn, all players should seriously consider contributing
as much as they can. With only 15 cards in deck there's 1 in 3 chance of
the card being drawn on turn 1. Note that the lucrative concessions
don't enter the game until the Early Republic so money will be severely
strained in the early going.

Unrest - The second major challenge. There are _four_ cards that increase
the unrest. Since players will need to contribute, there'll be little
money left for games and Land Bills can't be proposed until the Agrarian
Unrest card is drawn. The Type I Land Bill proposal required by that
card can be a two-edged sword since 20t is a a big hit on the Treasury
early in the game. A good source for popularity is fighting wars, but
since the Field Consul goes to war first, it could be difficult to send
the Rome Consul to a war. This is one good reason for attacking two wars
in one turn. Appius and Brutus are of course good canditates for Rome

--- Italian Period

Wars - One more war than the previous deck and two of them (2nd Samnite
War and Pyrrhic War) have considerable D/S percentages. Making 
conservative attacks against them could easily lead to some of these Wars
remaining active into the Early Republic, a situation which might not be
avoidable anyway.

Funds - The Treasury situation improves as long as the Wars are

Unrest - Not as big of a problem as the previous deck since there is only
one card that increases the unrest and Appian Works is a cheap way to
lower the unrest. As long as the Plebian Revolt is dealt with, the Unrest
will not be a problem unless it was already high entering this period.

--- Early Republic (as compared to the Early Republic scenario)

The State Treasury will probably be much less at the start of the Early
Republic (less than 100 compared to nearly 200); however Rome should have
a stronger army of Legions though no Veterans. There is a problem with
this situation though and that is that the 1st Punic requires lots of
fleets to attack and the Senate will not have the money to build many.
Note that Rome won't have any fleets when it enters the Early Republic.
If the 1st Punic War is drawn early on, Rome may not be able to attack
it. The only way to possibly prevent this situation is for major
contributions from the factions on the turn the Early Republic begins.

Since the 1st Punic War is shuffled in the deck, it's now possible for
Hamilcar or Hannibal to die before a Punic War is drawn, so the war
situation is slightly better in a way; however, since one or more wars
from the previous deck could still be in play this tends to balance the
difficulty. Also, since Flamininus could start with more influence than
normal (because of Cincinnatus), the Macedonian situation is a bit